Resources

What Can Carbon Remove?

What Can Carbon Remove? What Can Carbon Remove? When searching for the answers on what carbon can remove from water, first look at why it is important to purify water. In all uses, industrial, commercial, individual, and universal, clean water is the lifeblood of the planet.  The use of carbon as a filter dates back [...]

What is the pH of DI Water?

What is the pH of DI Water? pH Values What is the pH of DI water? -An article appeared in the publication "American Laboratory" that established a sure-fire method of determining the minimum and maximum pH values possible at known specific resistance values. The article discusses various causes of erroneous pH measurements and concludes that [...]

Boiler Water Deposits – Part 6

Chemical Treatments for Boiler Deposits - Part 6 Phosphate/Polymer Control Iron oxide is of particular concern in today's boiler water treatment programs. Deposition from low (less than 1.0 ppm) hardness boiler feedwater is eliminated with chelant programs and can be reduced by up to 95% by a good polymer/phosphate treatment program. Iron oxide is an [...]

Boiler Water Deposits – Part 5

Chemical Treatments for Boiler Deposits - Part 5 Phosphate/Polymer Control Phosphate treatment results are improved by organic supplements. Naturally occurring organics such as lignins, tannins, and starches were the first supplements used. The organics were added to promote the formation of a fluid sludge that would settle in the mud drum. Bottom blowdown from the [...]

Boiler Water Deposits – Part 4

Chemical Treatment for Boiler Deposits Introduction to Chemical Treatments Sodium carbonate treatment was the original method of controlling calcium sulfate scale. Today's methods are based on the use of phosphates and chelants. The former is a precipitating program, the latter a solubilizing program. Carbonate Control Before the acceptance of phosphate treatment in the 1930's, calcium [...]

Boiler Water Deposits – Part 3

Boiler Circulation and Deposits Boiler Circulation Process The image to the left shows the process of boiler circulation. The left legs of the U-tubes represent downcomers and are filled with relatively cool water. The right legs represent generating tubes and are heated. The heat generates steam bubbles, and convection currents create circulation. As more heat [...]

Boiler Water Deposits – Part 2

Types of Deposits and How They Occur Types of Deposits Common feedwater contaminants that can form boiler deposits include calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, aluminum, silica, and (to a lesser extent) silt and oil. Most deposits can be classified as one of two types: scale that crystallized directly onto tube surfaces sludge deposits that precipitated elsewhere [...]

Boiler Water Deposits – Part 1

The Problem of Boiler Deposits Deposition Problems Deposition is a major problem in the operation of steam generating equipment. The accumulation of material on boiler surfaces can cause problems like overheating and corrosion. Both of these conditions can frequently result in unscheduled downtime. Boiler feedwater pre-treatment systems have advanced and now it is possible to [...]

The Importance of RO System Data Collection

The Importance of RO System Data Collection Collected Data Maintaining records of operating data is necessary to monitor RO system performance. These records are usually kept on log sheets that can be designed for a specific system (such as RO). These are essential for both troubleshooting and possible warranty claims. The following data should be [...]

Determining Foulants & How to Clean Them – Part 2

Determining Foulants & How to Clean Them - Part 2 Cleaning Biological, Or Organic, Fouling The first step is to remove biological fouling, which includes bacteria and organics. In order to do this, they must be digested. This can be done with a high pH and high temperature cleaning with a minimum of 2 hours [...]

Determining Foulants & How to Clean Them – Part 1

Determining Foulants & How to Clean Them - Part 1 Determining Foulants Fouling can be caused by a few things. This can be from either particles like clay, organics and bacteria, or from inorganic deposits. Often times, it's a combination of many different foulants as they form layers on the surface of the membrane. The [...]

7 Common Causes of Membrane Fouling & Degradation

7 Common Causes of Membrane Fouling & Degradation Feed Water Considerations Fouling is a process during which continuous buildup of contributing deposits reduce the function and efficiency of the operating system. Membrane systems are mechanical and therefore subject to fouling on the surface. This fouling ultimately degrades the membranes. There are 3 main causes of [...]

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